Analytical method development involves the procedures that are used to quantify target pollutants in different matrices. Major challenges exist when the concentration of target pollutants is low and the matrix is highly complex. In such cases, sample preparation is performed before analysis. Sample preparation is used to achieve one or more of the following objectives:
Classical methods such as liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction are widely employed for sample preparation. These methods consume large volumes of hazardous solvents and reagents, thus raising concern about the safety of the environment and workers. The area of sample preparation is now inclined towards the development of solvent-less or solvent minimized extraction procedures. This research group is involved in developing miniaturized extraction techniques based on new materials and devices both for existing as well as emerging pollutants. The particular focus is on dispersive and membrane-based extraction strategies. This group also performs research and development activities to solve the challenges associated with the routine analysis of water, sediment, soil, and biota samples.
Water is the key element for all the living species including human beings and it is needed for various purposes in agriculture, domestic use and industrial operations. In view of these, its quality is of significance in all the aspects of human life. The rapidly increasing population, change in life pattern combined with development in various spheres, lead to depletion and overexploitation of the water resources besides impairment of the water quality due to adding of contaminants to the water body. The development of cost-effective, efficient, and robust materials and techniques for treating the contaminated water is the utmost need of the water industry. Traditional water/wastewater treatment technologies remain relatively expensive. Moreover the complex methods involved are ineffective for providing adequate safe water to the increasing needs for water coupled with stringent health guidelines and emerging contaminants. In this research area, a wide spectrum of carbonaceous and biomass materials before and after modifications is under development and investigations for the removal of different contaminants in water such as phenolic, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, organic sulfur compounds, aliphatic hydrocarbons (TPH) and pharmaceutical active compounds are progressing.
Assessment of environmental pollutants is the key component of any BEA and EIA studies which is carried out through analysis of different nutrients and contaminants. These components include trace metals, nitrate, nitrite, sulfide, cyanide, ammonia, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, petroleum hydrocarbons, BTEX, polycyclic biphenyls, chlorinated hydrocarbons, phenols, oil and grease but not limited to, in ground water, wastewater, seawater, soil, sediment and biota matrices. The Center of Environment and Water utilizes state-of-the-art instruments in the assessment and monitoring of these contaminants by following APHA and EPA standards.
The main goal of this research section is to assess and develop the industrial waste treatment technologies and suggest appropriate measures to solve the current problems and improve the process in terms of efficiency and environmental aspects. The research group utilizes the services of a dedicated team of qualified researchers, technicians and employ cutting-edge analytical instruments to develop and asses the technology with the aim to meet the specific industrial needs.